Poetry, on the other hand, is like honey, in that it is a "a sweetener that sugarcoats the bitter medicine of Epicurean philosophy and entices the audience to swallow it. De rerum natura (Latin: [deːˈreːrʊ̃n.naːˈtuːraː]; On the Nature of Things) is a first-century BC didactic poem by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius (c. 99 BC – c. 55 BC) with the goal of explaining Epicurean philosophy to a Roman audience. [24] What is more, Lucretius does not deny the existence of deities;[25][26] he simply argues that they did not create the universe, that they do not care about human affairs, and that they do not intervene in the world. Lukrez´ De rerum natura wurde von Poggio Bracciolini aufgespürt und gerettet. options are on the right side and top of the page. Jahrhundert v. Chr. A History of Western Science. With this episode, the book closes; this abrupt ending suggests that Lucretius might have died before he was able to finalize and fully edit his poem.[3]. [71][72] David Butterfield also writes that "clear echoes and/or responses" to De rerum natura can be detected in the works of the Roman elegiac poets Catullus, Propertius, and Tibullus, as well as the lyric poet Horace. Since that nothingness (which he likens to a deep, peaceful sleep) caused us no pain or discomfort, we should not fear the same nothingness that will follow our own demise:[5], According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Lucretius sees those who fear death as embracing the fallacious assumption that they will be present in some sense "to regret and bewail [their] own non-existence. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system. The last three books give an atomic and materialist explanation of phenomena preoccupying human reflection, such as vision and the senses, sex and reproduction, natural forces and agriculture, the heavens, and disease. DE RERVM NATVRA LIBRI SEX. [54] However, while O is a direct descendant of the archetype,[54] Q and S are believed to have both been derived from a manuscript (Ψ) that in turn had been derived from a damaged and modified version of the archetype (ΩI). [8] This book addresses the origin of the world and of all things therein, the movements of the heavenly bodies, the changing of the seasons, day and night, the rise and progress of humankind, society, political institutions, and the invention of the various arts and sciences which embellish and ennoble life. [66] However, Manilius's poem, espouses a Stoic, deterministic understanding of the universe,[67] and by its very nature attacks the very philosophical underpinnings of Lucretius's worldview. Hutchinson, Lucy (geb. The De rerum natura is, as its title confirms, a work ofphysics, written in the venerable tradition of Greek treatises Onnature. [97], In 2011, the historian and literary scholar Stephen Greenblatt wrote a popular history book about the poem, entitled The Swerve: How the World Became Modern. De rerum natura (Titus Lucretius Carus) E Wikisource. Lucretius then dedicates time to exploring the axiom that nothing can be produced from nothing, and that nothing can be reduced to nothing (Nil fieri ex nihilo, in nihilum nil posse reverti). 1st century AD), whose didactic poem Astronomica (written c. AD 10–20), alludes to De rerum natura in a number of places. [3], The fifth book is described by Ramsay as the most finished and impressive,[3] while Stahl argues that its "puerile conceptions" is proof that Lucretius should be judged as a poet, not as a scientist. Über die Natur der Dinge: (De rerum natura) | Lukrez | ISBN: 9783843065689 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Mutter der Aeneaden, o Wonne der Menschen und Götter, Holde Venus! Mit einer Einführung und Erläuterungen von Ernst Günther Schmidt, München 1991 – Lukrez: De rerum natura. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system. Chr.) [3][20][21] Some have suggested that Lucretius died before being able to edit, finalize, and publish his work. De rerum natura De rerum natura (deutsch Über die Natur der Dinge oder Vom Wesen des Weltalls) ist ein aus dem 1. Your current position in the text is marked in blue. [15] Near the end of his first book, Lucretius defends his fusion of Epicureanism and poetry with a simile, arguing that the philosophy he espouses is like a medicine: life-saving but often unpleasant. "[37] His naturalistic explanations were meant to bolster the ethical and philosophical ideas of Epicureanism, not to reveal true explanations of the physical world.[36]. Perseus provides credit for all accepted However, the purpose of the poem is subject to ongoing scholarly debate. Werk: philosophisches Lehrgedicht De rerum natura erstes bedeutendes und vollständig erhaltenes Lehrgedicht der römischen Antike einem Dichtermäzen namens C. Memmius gewidmet Ergo hominum genus in cassum frustraque laborat semper et in curis consumit inanibus aevom, ni mirum quia non cognovit quae sit habendi finis et omnino quoad crescat vera voluptas; idque minutatim vitam provexit in altum et belli magnos commovit funditus aestus. [29], De rerum natura does not argue that the soul does not exist; rather, the poem claims that the soul, like all things in existence, is made up of atoms, and because these atoms will one day drift apart, the human soul is not immortal. [1], The Italian scholar Guido Billanovich demonstrated that Lucretius' poem was well known in its entirety by Lovato Lovati (1241–1309) and some other Paduan pre-humanists during the thirteenth century. [4][5] By recalling the opening to poems by Homer, Ennius, and Hesiod (all of which begin with an invocation to the Muses), the proem to De rerum natura conforms to epic convention. [55][56], While there exist a handful of references to Lucretius in Romance and Germanic sources dating between the ninth and fifteenth centuries (references that, according to Ada Palmer, "indicate a tenacious, if spotty knowledge of the poet and some knowledge of [his] poem"), no manuscripts of De rerum natura currently survive from this span of time. [88] While he argued that Lucretius's criticism of Roman religion were "sound attacks on paganism and superstition", Lactantius claimed that they were futile against the "True Faith" of Christianity. [59], The first printed edition of De rerum natura was produced in Brescia, Lombardy, in 1473. stammendes Lehrgedicht des römischen Dichters, Philosophen und Epikureers Titus Lucretius Carus, genannt Lukrez. [94], Notable figures who owned copies include Ben Jonson whose copy is held at the Houghton Library, Harvard; and Thomas Jefferson, who owned at least five Latin editions and English, Italian and French translations. Inhalt: Alle Dinge im Universum sind aus Atomen zusammengesetzt, woraus sich Erklärungen für … The one major exception to this was Isidore of Seville, who at the start of the 7th century produced a work on astronomy and natural history dedicated to the Visigothic king Sisebut that was entitled De natura rerum. [13] Memmius was also a tribune in 66, praetor in 58, governor of Bithynia in 57, and was a candidate for the consulship in 54 but was disqualified for bribery, and Stearns suggests that the warm relationship between patron and client may have cooled (sed tua me virtus tamen et sperata voluptas / suavis amicitiae quemvis efferre laborem, "But still your merit, and as I hope, the joy / Of our sweet friendship, urge me to any toil"). The universe described in the poem operates according to these physical principles, guided by fortuna ("chance"),[2] and not the divine intervention of the traditional Roman deities. [3] Lucretius identifies the supernatural with the notion that the deities created our world or interfere with its operations in some way. (3 Bde. [5][64][65] According to David Sedley of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "With these admiring words, Virgil neatly encapsulates four dominant themes of the poem—universal causal explanation, leading to elimination of the threats the world seems to pose, a vindication of free will, and disproof of the soul's survival after death. According to Lucretius's frequent statements in his poem, the main purpose of the work was to free Gaius Memmius's mind of the supernatural and the fear of death—and to induct him into a state of ataraxia by expounding the philosophical system of Epicurus, whom Lucretius glorifies as the hero of his epic poem. [46], Copies of the poem were preserved in a number of medieval libraries, with the earliest extant manuscripts dating to the ninth century. Historians of science, however, have been critical of the limitations of his Epicurean approach to science, especially as it pertained to astronomical topics, which he relegated to the class of "unclear" objects. And as a simple ceasing-to-be, death can be neither good nor bad for this being, since a dead person—being completely devoid of sensation and thought—cannot miss being alive. [1][38] According to Lucretius, this unpredictable swerve occurs at no fixed place or time: When atoms move straight down through the void by their own weight, they deflect a bit in space at a quite uncertain time and in uncertain places, just enough that you could say that their motion has changed. Cuius, uti memoro, rei simulacrum et imago ante oculos semper nobis versatur et instat. Rom Der lateinische Autor Lukrez und sein grandioses Weltgedicht: „De rerum natura“ erklärt die Natur und die Schönheit des Lebens, doch auch die … [88] The Early Christian apologist Lactantius, in particular, heavily cites and critiques Lucretius in his The Divine Institutes and its Epitome, as well as his De ira Dei. The shape of these atoms, their properties, their movements, the laws under which they enter into combination and assume forms and qualities appreciable by the senses, with other preliminary matters on their nature and affections, together with a refutation of objections and opposing hypotheses, occupy the first two books. [23] However, at that time the label was extremely broad and did not necessarily mean a denial of divine entities (for example, some large Christian sects labelled dissenting groups as atheists). Umfassender Kommentar von Cyril Bailey), Oxford University Press 1947. [73], In regards to prose writers, a number either quote from Lucretius's poem or express great admiration for De rerum natura, including: Vitruvius (in De Architectura),[74][75] Marcus Velleius Paterculus (in the Historiae Romanae),[75][76] Quintilian (in the Institutio Oratoria),[71][77] Tacitus (in the Dialogus de oratoribus),[71][78] Marcus Cornelius Fronto (in De eloquentia),[79][80] Cornelius Nepos (in the Life Of Atticus),[75][81] Apuleius (in De Deo Socratis),[82][83] and Gaius Julius Hyginus (in the Fabulae). An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. He was unable to tell his readers how to determine which of these alternatives might be the true one. In both this work, and as well as his more well-known Etymologiae (c. AD 600–625), Isidore liberally quotes from Lucretius a total of twelve times, drawing verses from all of Lucretius's books except his third. Von nichts kommt nichts.” Lukrez, Titus Lucretius Carus - De rerum natura. [19] For instance, the poem concludes rather abruptly while detailing the Plague of Athens, there are redundant passages throughout (e.g., 1.820–821 and 2.1015–1016) alongside other aesthetic “loose ends”, and at 5.155 Lucretius mentions that he will spend a great deal of time discussing the nature of the gods, which never comes to pass. [66] This has led scholars like Katharina Volk to argue that "Manilius is a veritable anti-Lucretius". [98][99][100] The book was well-received, and later earned the 2012 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction and the 2011 National Book Award for Nonfiction. Click anywhere in the Click anywhere in the [31][32], Thus, he began his discussion by claiming that he would, explain by what forces nature steers the courses of the Sun and the journeyings of the Moon, so that we shall not suppose that they run their yearly races between heaven and earth of their own free will [i.e., are gods themselves] or that they are rolled round in furtherance of some divine plan....[33], However, when he set out to put this plan into practice, he limited himself to showing how one, or several different, naturalistic accounts could explain certain natural phenomena. To prove that neither the mind nor spirit can survive independent of the body, Lucretius uses a simple analogy: when a vessel shatters, its contents spill everywhere; likewise, when the body dies, the mind and spirit dissipate. [90][91] (About a century later, the British historian and Doctor of the Church Bede produced a work also called De natura rerum, partly based on Isidore's work but apparently ignorant of Lucretius's poem. [66] What is more, Manilius also seems to suggest throughout this poem that his work is superior to that of Lucretius's. „DE RERUM NATURA” ... Aus den Dingen selbst, aus ihrer Beschaffenheit, erklärt Lukrez die Phänomene, die, zusammengenommen, unsere Welt ergeben. The poem consists of six untitled books, in dactylic hexameter. Übersetzung: Hermann Diels, 1924 [58] This is because De rerum natura was rediscovered in January 1417 by Poggio Bracciolini, who probably found the poem in the Benedictine library at Fulda. It has been suggested that Dante (1265–1321) might have read Lucretius's poem, as a few verses of his Divine Comedy exhibit a great affinity with De rerum natura, but there is no conclusive evidence that Dante ever read Lucretius. Über das Leben des Lukrez ist so gut wie nichts bekannt. [68] (Coincidentally, De rerum natura and the Astronomica were both rediscovered by Poggio Bracciolini in the early 15th century. [61], The earliest recorded critique of Lucretius's work is in a letter written by the Roman statesman Cicero to his brother Quintus, in which the former claims that Lucretius's poetry is "full of inspired brilliance, but also of great artistry" (Lucreti poemata, ut scribis, ita sunt, multis luminibus ingeni, multae tamen artis). De rerum natura (deutsch Über die Natur der Dinge oder Vom Wesen des Weltalls) ist ein aus dem 1. If Lucretius's poem were to be definitely placed at the Villa of the Papyri, it would suggest that it was studied by the Neapolitan Epicurean school. with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. On the Nature of Things, long poem written in Latin as De rerum natura by Lucretius that sets forth the physical theory of the Greek philosopher Epicurus. Lucretius's De rerum natura. [101][102], "On the Nature of Things" redirects here. According to the Epicurean canon, the fear of death must also becountered, and the rational management of pleasures a… his assertion that the world was created from chaos, and his denials of Providence, divine participation, miracles, the efficacy of prayer, and an afterlife) as "proto-atheistic". In relation to this discrepancy in the frequency of Lucretius's reference to the apparent subject of his poem, Kannengiesse advances the theory that Lucretius wrote the first version of De rerum natura for the reader at large, and subsequently revised in order to write it for Memmius. Die Annäherung der Künstler erfolgte über ausgewählte Textstellen, die zu einer bildlichen Darstellung animierten. The poem, written in some 7,400 dactylic hexameters, is divided into six untitled books, and explores Epicurean physics through poetic language and metaphors. 1681) De Rerum Natura. [27] The historian Ada Palmer has labelled six ideas in Lucretius's thought (viz. [42] If this were the case, then it might explain how Cicero came to be familiar with Lucretius's work. [5] Given that Lucretius goes on to argue that the gods are removed from human life, many have thus seen this opening to be contradictory: how can Lucretius pray to Venus and then deny that the gods listen to or care about human affairs? This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. But if they were not in the habit of swerving, they would all fall straight down through the depths of the void, like drops of rain, and no collision would occur, nor would any blow be produced among the atoms. For the documentary television series, see, Lucretius was quoted by several early Christian writers, including, List of English translations of De rerum natura, "Hortus Apertus – La fortuna – Dante e Lucrezio", "Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini" (2013), "The 2012 Pulitzer Prize Winners: General Nonfiction", "2011 National Book Award Winner, Nonfiction", "An Unearthed Treasure That Changed Things", "The Answer Man: An Ancient Poem Was Rediscovered—and the World Swerved", "Book review: 'The Swerve: How the World Became Modern, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=De_rerum_natura&oldid=993308149, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with Latin-language sources (la), Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 23:10. 1620, gest. [45] Nevertheless, a small minority of scholars argue that Jerome's assertion may be credible. [59][60] This proves that the work was known in select circles long before the official rediscovery by Poggio. [62][63], It is also believed that the Roman poet Virgil referenced Lucretius and his work in the second book of his Georgics when he wrote: "Happy is he who has discovered the causes of things and has cast beneath his feet all fears, unavoidable fate, and the din of the devouring Underworld" (felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas/atque metus omnis et inexorabile fatum/subiecit pedibus strepitumque Acherontis avari). voluntas). De rerum natura 1. De rerum natura (deutsch Über die Natur der Dinge oder Vom Wesen des Weltalls) ist ein aus dem 1. These phenomena are the result of regular, but purposeless motions and interactions of tiny atoms in empty space. Buch - deutsch : 1. Die spärlichen Angaben stammen großteils aus späten Quellen und sind widersprüchlich und zum Teil wenig glaubwürdig. [57] Rather, all the remaining Lucretian manuscripts that are currently extant date from or after the fifteenth century. But to lay down which of them it is lies beyond the range of our stumbling progress. [50] Today, Q is also housed at Leiden University. I have translated from my own text published in the Bibliotheca Oxoniensi. [43] In c. AD 380, St. Jerome would contend in his Chronicon that Cicero amended and edited De rerum natura,[44] although most scholars argue that this is an erroneous claim;[45] the classicist David Butterfield argues that this mistake was likely made by Jerome (or his sources) because the earliest reference to Lucretius is in the aforementioned letter from Cicero. [52][53] Scholars consider manuscripts O, Q, and S to all be descendants of the original archetype, which they dub Ω. "[23] Some Christian apologists viewed De rerum natura as an atheist manifesto and a dangerous foil to be thwarted. Lucretius divided his argument into six [5] To further alleviate the fear of non-existence, Lucretius makes use of the symmetry argument: he argues that the eternal oblivion awaiting all humans after death is exactly the same as the infinite nothingness that preceded our birth.