Par extension, on appelle Panthéon un monument où sont déposés les corps des hommes illustres d'une nation. À propos de Wikipédia; Avertissements; Rechercher. The institution still exists, and is now called the Academia Ponteficia di Belle Arti (The Pontifical Academy of Fine Arts), based in the palace of the Cancelleria. This refers to the confraternity of artists and musicians that was formed here by a 16th-century Canon of the church, Desiderio da Segni, to ensure that worship was maintained in the chapel. En grec ancien, πᾶν (pãn) signifie « tout » et θεός (theos), « dieu ». File; File history; File usage on Commons; File usage on other wikis ; Metadata; Size of this preview: 800 × 585 pixels. [26], The degree to which the decorative scheme should be credited to Hadrian's architects is uncertain. The oculus at the top of the dome was never covered, allowing rainfall through the ceiling and onto the floor. The large bronze doors to the cella, measuring 4.45m wide by 7.53m high, are the oldest in Rome. Dernière modification le 23 novembre 2020, à 17:19. "[12], Since the French Revolution, when the church of Sainte-Geneviève in Paris was deconsecrated and turned into the secular monument called the Panthéon of Paris, the generic term pantheon has sometimes been applied to other buildings in which illustrious dead are honoured or buried. [46] These were dragged more than 100 km (62 miles) from the quarry to the river on wooden sledges. The Pan­theon is a state prop­erty, man­aged by Italy's Min­istry of Cul­tural Her­itage and Ac­tiv­i­ties and Tourism through the Polo Muse­ale del Lazio; in 2013 it was vis­ited by over 6 mil­lion peo­ple. The chapel was originally dedicated to St Michael the Archangel, and then to St. Thomas the Apostle. In the walls at the back of the Pantheon's portico are two huge niches, perhaps intended for statues of Augustus Caesar and Agrippa. Die huidige amptelike Italiaanse naam van die Panteon as Rooms-Katolieke kerkgebou is Basilica di … The royal tombs are maintained by the National Institute of Honour Guards to the Royal Tombs, founded in 1878. Nevertheless, it became a standard exemplar when classical styles were revived, and has been copied many times by later architects. The 4,535-tonne weight of the Roman concrete dome is concentrated on a ring of voussoirs 9.1 metres (30 ft) in diameter that form the oculus, while the downward thrust of the dome is carried by eight barrel vaults in the 6.4-metre-thick (21 ft) drum wall into eight piers. The Governance of Rome. Ce terme désigne aussi l'ensemble des dieux d'une mythologie ou d'une religion. The final niche on this side has a statue of St. Evasius (Sant'Evasio) (1727) by Francesco Moderati. The tomb of King Umberto I and his wife Margherita di Savoia is in the next chapel. Le Panthéon est un temple que les Grecs et les Romains consacraient à certains de leurs dieux, par exemple le Panthéon de Rome, dédié à tous les dieux. The building standing today was constructed on the same site around 126 CE. The Pantheon is in use as a Catholic church. This discordance has not always been appreciated, and the attic level was redone according to Neoclassical taste in the 18th century.[68]. The present arrangement is from 1811, designed by Antonio Muñoz. [67], Circles and squares form the unifying theme of the interior design. [41] Concerning this, an anonymous contemporary Roman satirist quipped in a pasquinade (a publicly posted poem) that quod non fecerunt barbari fecerunt Barberini ("What the barbarians did not do the Barberinis [Urban VIII's family name] did"). It was rebuilt by the emperor Hadrianand probably dedicated about 126 AD. ISBN 978-90-247-1458-2 MacDonald, William L.. Pantheon in Rome: The History Behind Its Perfect Ancient Architecture. [21], The form of Agrippa's Pantheon is debated. On the right side is the low relief Cardinal Consalvi presents to Pope Pius VII the five provinces restored to the Holy See (1824) made by the Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. J.-C). Kuil ini turut digunakan sebagai gereja dari tahun 609 sampai 1885 serta sebagai suatu tempat pemakaman bagi … The altar in the chapel is covered with false marble. Pantheon Rome … [61], Upon entry, visitors are greeted by an enormous rounded room covered by the dome. [5], The pediment was decorated with relief sculpture, probably of gilded bronze. The dome features sunken panels (coffers), in five rings of 28. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43.3 metres (142 ft), so the whole interior would fit exactly within a cube (or, a 43.3-m sphere could fit within the interior). Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down. In the early decades of the 20th century, a piece of the original, as could be reconstructed from Renaissance drawings and paintings, was recreated in one of the panels. Autres résolutions : 320 × 208 pixels | 640 × 415 pixels | 1 024 × 664 pixels | 1 280 × 831 pixels | 3 218 × 2 088 pixels. The Pantheon (meaning "Temple of all the gods") is a building in Rome. It is also said that the bronze was used by Bernini in creating his famous baldachin above the high altar of St. Peter's Basilica, but, according to at least one expert, the Pope's accounts state that about 90% of the bronze was used for the cannon, and that the bronze for the baldachin came from Venice. [69], The dome photographed with a fisheye lens in 2016, South east view of the Pantheon from Piazza della Minerva, 2006, The dome of the Pantheon seen from the hill of Janiculum, Tomb of King Victor Emmanuel II, "Father of his Country", As the best-preserved example of an Ancient Roman monumental building, the Pantheon has been enormously influential in Western architecture from at least the Renaissance on;[70] starting with Brunelleschi's 42-metre (138 ft) dome of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, completed in 1436. Pantheon, Rome - Wikipedia. 4 nov. 2016 - Pantheon panorama, Rome - 6 - Panthéon (Rome) — Wikipédia The Pantheon is full of such devices – for example, there are relieving arches over the recesses inside – but all these arches were hidden by marble facing on the interior and possibly by stone revetment or stucco on the exterior. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history and, since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been in use as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Latin: Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". Fu fondato nel 27 a.C. dall'arpinate Marco Vipsanio Agrippa, genero di Augusto. Celui des Égyptiens nous est également assez bien connu (le panthéon égyptien doit être considéré spirituellement différent par rapport à ceux de la Grèce et de Rome[réf. [27] How the building was actually used is not known. Le Panthéon est un temple que les Grecs et les Romains consacraient à certains de leurs dieux, par exemple le Panthéon de Rome, dédié à tous les dieux. Each was 11.9 metres tall, 1.5 metres in diameter, and 60 tonnes in weight. To the sides are paintings (1661) by Francesco Cozza, one of the Virtuosi: Adoration of the Shepherds on left side and Adoration of the Magi on right. It was originally dedicated to the Holy Spirit. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned … [65][66] In antiquity, the coffers may have contained bronze rosettes symbolising the starry firmament. Het Pantheon is een van de best bewaard gebleven Romeinse gebouwen ter wereld. Instead, after the intended columns failed to arrive, the builders made many awkward adjustments in order to use shafts 40 Roman feet tall and capitals eight Roman feet tall. [15] It seems likely that the Pantheon and the Basilica of Neptune were Agrippa's sacra privata, not aedes publicae (public temples). The first niche to the right of the entrance holds a Madonna of the Girdle and St Nicholas of Bari (1686) painted by an unknown artist. 1200 x 741 jpeg 253kB. Pope Urban VIII (1623 to 1644) ordered the bronze ceiling of the Pantheon's portico melted down. Finished by Hadrian but not claimed as one of his works, it used the text of the original inscription on the new façade (a common practice in Hadrian's rebuilding projects all over Rome; the only building on which Hadrian put his own name was the Temple to the Deified Trajan). Filippo Brunelleschi, among other architects, looked to the Pantheon as inspiration for their works. nécessaire]). In the 15th century, the Pantheon was adorned with paintings: the best-known is the Annunciation by Melozzo da Forlì. Throughout the day, the light from the oculus moves around this space in a reverse sundial effect. The wooden crucifix on the altar is from the 15th century. Le temple et la coupole ronde caractéristique actuels ont été construits au deuxième siècle sous lempereur Hadrien, après que la bâtiment ait été endommagé par un grand incendie en 80 A.D.par un énorme incendie et que la foudre déclencha un nouvel incendie en 110. [11], Godfrey and Hemsoll point out that ancient authors never refer to Hadrian's Pantheon with the word aedes, as they do with other temples, and the Severan inscription carved on the architrave uses simply "Pantheum". Dio appears to be the only near-contemporaneous writer to mention the Pantheon. Alternatively, it has also been argued that the scale of the portico related to the urban design of the space in front of the temple. [73] Other notable replicas, such as The Rotunda (New York) (1818), do not survive. The checkerboard floor pattern contrasts with the concentric circles of square coffers in the dome. Lise Hetland argues that the present construction began in 114, under Trajan, four years after it was destroyed by fire for the second time (Oros. They were floated by barge down the Nile River when the water level was high during the spring floods, and then transferred to vessels to cross the Mediterranean Sea to the Roman port of Ostia. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. [39] The only other loss has been the external sculptures, which adorned the pediment above Agrippa's inscription. The first members were, among others, Antonio da Sangallo the younger, Jacopo Meneghino, Giovanni Mangone, Zuccari, Domenico Beccafumi, and Flaminio Vacca. Giuseppe Sacconi participated, but lost – he would later design the tomb of Umberto I in the opposite chapel. In the second chapel is the tomb of King Victor Emmanuel II (died 1878). The top of the rotunda wall features a series of brick relieving arches, visible on the outside and built into the mass of the brickwork. Pantheon adalah sebuah bangunan kuil berbentuk bulat yang dibina dari tahun 27 SM sehingga ia diselesaikan pada zaman pemerintahan Maharaja Hadrian (118 SM-28 M) pada tahun 126 M di pusat kota Roma. The second niche has a 15th-century fresco of the Tuscan school, depicting the Coronation of the Virgin. During storms, a drainage system below the floor handles the rain that falls through the oculus. [citation needed]. [5] The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. The first chapel on the right, the Chapel of the Annunciation, has a fresco of the Annunciation attributed to Melozzo da Forlì. Pembangunan kuil ini diselesaikan pada masa pemerintahan Kaisar Hadrian (118 SM-28 M) pada tahun 126 M. Hadrian membangun kuil ini untuk penyembahan terhadap dewa-dewa Romawi. Langue; Suivre; Modifier; Fichier; Historique du fichier; Utilisation du fichier; Usage global du fichier; Métadonnées; Taille de cet aperçu : 800 × 519 pixels. Today, it is not known what gods were included. [30][31] This now-barely legible inscription reads: In 609, the Byzantine emperor Phocas gave the building to Pope Boniface IV, who converted it into a Christian church and consecrated it to St. Mary and the Martyrs on 13 May 609: "Another Pope, Boniface, asked the same [Emperor Phocas, in Constantinople] to order that in the old temple called the Pantheon, after the pagan filth was removed, a church should be made, to the holy virgin Mary and all the martyrs, so that the commemoration of the saints would take place henceforth where not gods but demons were formerly worshipped. Bearing in mind also that the Greek word θεῖος (theios) need not mean 'of a god' but could mean 'superhuman', or even 'excellent'. Jump to navigation Jump to search. "[20] However, archaeological excavations have shown that the Pantheon of Agrippa had been completely destroyed except for the façade. 1869 x 1301 jpeg 824kB. [1], In the aftermath of the Battle of Actium (31 BC), Marcus Agrippa started an impressive building program: the Pantheon was a part of the complex created by him on his own property in the Campus Martius in 29–19 BC, which included three buildings aligned from south to north: the Baths of Agrippa, the Basilica of Neptune, and the Pantheon. Die plein buite die Panteon dra dieselfde naam - Piazza della Rotonda. The Historia Augusta says that Hadrian dedicated the Pantheon (among other buildings) in the name of the original builder (Hadr. [72] Others include the Rotunda of Mosta in Malta (1833). [25], The Augustan Pantheon was destroyed along with other buildings in a huge fire in the year 80 AD. The only definite pantheon recorded earlier than Agrippa's was at Antioch in Syria, though it is only mentioned by a sixth-century source. The two plaques commemorate Maria Bibbiena and Annibale Carracci. Hidden chambers engineered within the rotunda form a sophisticated structural system. The golden lamp above the tomb burns in honor of Victor Emmanuel III, who died in exile in 1947. Weddings are also held there from time to time. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes. Pantheon adalah sebuah bangunan yang dikonstruksikan pada tahun 27 SM sebagai kuil berbentuk bulat di pusat kota Roma. ; Le Panthéon de Rome est un temple, magnifiquement conservé, de l'Antiquité romaine, dédié à tous les dieux. [7] Cassius Dio, a Roman senator who wrote in Greek, speculated that the name comes either from the statues of many gods placed around this building, or from the resemblance of the dome to the heavens. The Pantheon (UK: /ˈpænθiən/, US: /-ɒn/;[1] Latin: Pantheum,[nb 1] from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). [55] This reduced the weight of the roof, as did the elimination of the apex by means of the oculus.[56]. It had long been thought that the current building was built by Agrippa, with later alterations undertaken, and this was in part because of the Latin inscription on the front of the temple[19] which reads: or in full, "M[arcus] Agrippa L[ucii] f[ilius] co[n]s[ul] tertium fecit," meaning "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, made [this building] when consul for the third time. Place du Panthéon, a square in Paris; Pantheon, London, an 18th-century place of entertainment; Pantheon of National Revival Heroes, a Bulgarian national monument and ossuary; Pantheon, Moscow, a planned but uncompleted memorial … Among those buried there are the painters Raphael and Annibale Carracci, the composer Arcangelo Corelli, and the architect Baldassare Peruzzi. The building's consecration as a church saved it from the abandonment, destruction, and the worst of the spoliation that befell the majority of ancient Rome's buildings during the early medieval period. On the first niche to the left of the entrance is an Assumption (1638) by Andrea Camassei. On the altar is a statue of St Joseph and the Holy Child by Vincenzo de' Rossi. Langue; Suivre; Modifier; Fichier; Historique du fichier; Utilisation du fichier; Usage global du fichier; Métadonnées; Taille de cet aperçu : 417 × 599 pixels. Most of the bronze was used to make bombards for the fortification of Castel Sant'Angelo, with the remaining amount used by the Apostolic Camera for various other works. The Pantheon (UK: / ˈ p æ n θ i ə n /, US: /-ɒ n /; Latin: Pantheum, from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). Cassius Dio, a Graeco-Roman senator, consul and author of a comprehensive History of Rome, writing approximately 75 years after the Pantheon's reconstruction, mistakenly attributed the domed building to Agrippa rather than Hadrian. Domitian rebuilt the Pantheon, which was burnt again in 110 AD. Le Panthéon de Rome est un temple romain situé sur la Piazza della Rotonda, à Rome, en plein cœur historique.Son nom vient des mots grecs pan (tout) et theios (divin), que l'on peut traduire par "tous les dieux" .. Historique [modifier | modifier le wikicode]. English: The main altar of the church Sancta Maria ad Martyres (the Pantheon), in Rome, Italy. The first chapel on the left, is the Chapel of St Joseph in the Holy Land, and is the chapel of the Confraternity of the Virtuosi at the Pantheon. In the Chapel of the Crucifixion, the Roman brick wall is visible in the niches. The Pantheon's large circular domed cella, with a conventional temple portico front, was unique in Roman architecture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2005). Het is een herbouw van een eerder pantheon op deze plaats dat in 80 door brand werd verwoest. Français : L'autel principal de l'église Santa Maria ad Martyres (le Pantheon), Rome, Italie. 7.12). Even by the year 200, there was uncertainty about the origin of the building and its purpose: Agrippa finished the construction of the building called the Pantheon. [58] The Pantheon still holds the record for the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. He was the last Savoy to be buried there, as his son and successor Victor Emmanuel III died in exile and was buried in Egypt until his remains were transferred to Vicoforte near Cuneo in 2017. Pantheon The Pantheon ( / ˈ p æ n θ i ə n / or US / ˈ p æ n θ i ɒ n / ; [1] Latin : Pantheon , [nb 1] from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion meaning "[temple] of every god") is a former Roman temple , now a church, in Rome , Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the … [9] In fact, the concept of a pantheon dedicated to all the gods is questionable. "[22], The only passages referring to the decoration of the Agrippan Pantheon written by an eyewitness are in Pliny the Elder's Natural History. Revenir à la page « Panthéon (Rome) ». Pantheon - Colosseum Rome Tickets . On peut voir su… There, they were transferred back onto barges and pulled up the Tiber River to Rome. The Pantheon (UK: / ˈ p æ n θ i ə n /, US: /-ɒ n /; Latin: Pantheum, from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). a titular church for a cardinal-deacon. ISBN 0-521-84202-6 Loewenstein, Karl. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhof (1973). However, Paul the Deacon records the spoliation of the building by the Emperor Constans II, who visited Rome in July 663: Remaining at Rome twelve days he pulled down everything that in ancient times had been made of metal for the ornament of the city, to such an extent that he even stripped off the roof of the church [of the blessed Mary], which at one time was called the Pantheon, and had been founded in honour of all the gods and was now by the consent of the former rulers the place of all the martyrs; and he took away from there the bronze tiles and sent them with all the other ornaments to Constantinople. The third niche has a sculpture by Il Lorenzone of St Anne and the Blessed Virgin. The Pantheon is a circular building with a portico supported granite Corinthian columns. The interior of the dome was possibly intended to symbolize the arched vault of the heavens. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. [16] The former would help explain how the building could have so easily lost its original name and purpose (Ziolkowski contends that it was originally the Temple of Mars in Campo)[17] in such a relatively short period of time.[18]. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome.

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